However, developing microservices is not always easy, and not necessarily a panacea or silver bullet versus monolithic architectures. While limiting the function of a program to a specific task may reduce the absolute lines of code, it may introduce other challenges related to testing, team coordination, and distributed computing complexity.
The good news is that there is an abundance of tools and frameworks to support microservices adoption and mitigate these challenges, with new solutions emerging continuously. Understanding the relationships within and among this ecosystem of software tools, frameworks, and vendors can be daunting, so we assembled a map of the ecosystem to help guide practitioners, vendors, investors, media, or anyone who’s simply interested in following the space. There are other efforts to do this, most notably Sequoia Capital’s excellent microservices ecosystem map of the broader market, which also covers general data center, network management, and operating systems. Our goal was to create an ecosystem map that is more focused on microservices specialists, and less overweight on the data center side of the space.
To illustrate the various dynamics of the ecosystem, we used a transit map (or subway map) paradigm that covers four “districts” corresponding to the microservices life cycle: development, deployment, management, and discovery (via public directories, not service instance registries). Each of these districts has one or more “category lines” with multiple “vendor stations”.
Each vendor station may span multiple category lines, and it is noted whether a vendor provides any products under open source licenses (O), made any acquisitions (A), or is a public company (P). Strategic relationships, projects, and subsidiaries are indicated with “bus lines”. In an effort to be less verbose, we list vendor names instead of individual products, which can be found in the details below.
How to read the map in this zoomed area:
• Nanoscale.io has a solution that is both a Microservices Builder and provides Serverless/FaaS Computing.
• Microsoft has an offering for API Management, Serverless Computing, and Containers. It is a public company, and at least one of these offerings is via an acquisition.
• Google has an offering for API Management and Serverless Computing. It also has a relationship with an open source project Container Orchestration project called Kubernetes.
Category lines are defined in more detail below, where we describe both inclusion and, more importantly, exclusion criteria in an effort to maintain focus on microservices-specific tools that drive productivity. The map notes “airport codes” to related ecosystems; groups of vendors who may have functional overlap, but not necessarily focus specifically on the microservices approach.
Category Line: Specification and Mockups
Related Ecosystem(s): Application lifecycle management (ALM)
Category Notes: Includes widely adopted web service specification standards. Includes solutions that provide a user interface (UI) for developers or business users to declaratively define API endpoints and generate standards-based specifications and/or code stubs. Excludes command line (CLI) developer toolkits that only generate documentation (eg. Slate, Snowboard, etc.) or source code renderers (eg. Drakov, API-Mock, etc.). Excludes ALM solutions (eg. IBM Rational, SmartBear ALMComplete).
Category Line: Microservice Builder
Related Ecosystem(s): Integrated Development Environments (IDEs), Backend-as-a-Service (BaaS)
Criteria Notes: Includes vendors who provide an abstracted approach to define the business logic of a microservice and corresponding API specifications, via a graphical user interface console to increase productivity. May include a domain-specific scripting language (DSL) for defining custom business logic. Some are downloadable frameworks, others provide cloud hosting, and some offer both options. Excludes solutions that only provide a command-line interface (CLI) or only execute containerized code (eg. Iron.io, IBM OpenWhisk). Excludes general integrated development environments (IDEs such as Eclipse, Microsoft Visual Studio, etc.). Excludes mobile and backend-as-a-service solutions (BaaS) that are monolithic app builders or have prescribed API routes and specifications (eg. RedHat Mobile Application Platform, Kony Mobile Fabric, Kinvey, etc.) .
Category Line: Containers and Orchestration
Related Ecosystem(s): Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment tools. Operating system platforms that are optimized for microservices execution.
Criteria Notes: Includes container and container orchestration solutions (eg. Kubernetes, Docker). Includes container management and deployment solutions (eg. Rancher, Containership). Excludes general-purpose continuous improvement (CI) and continuous deployment (CD) devops toolkits (eg. Puppet, Ansible, Vagrant, etc.). Excludes Linux kernel operating systems (eg. CoreOS, DC/OS, RancherOS, etc.) and general cloud platforms (eg. CloudFoundry, OpenStack, etc.).
Category Line: Serverless and Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) Computing
Related Ecosystem(s): Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
Criteria Notes: Includes vendors that offer cloud hosted microservice or FaaS execution on-demand platforms, either via containers and/or native scripting, with auto-scaled resources, and billing on a granular usage basis. Excludes PaaS solutions that are primarily designed to run “always-on” monolithic applications (eg. CenturyLink AppFog, Mulesoft Cloudhub, etc.). Excludes general-purpose IaaS and managed hosting providers (eg. Rackspace, IBM Softlayer).
Category Line: API Management
Related Ecosystem(s): Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), Integration Platforms-as-a-Service (iPaaS)
Criteria Notes: Includes vendors that offer API management solutions via graphical user interface consoles, several of whom are now adding abstracted microservice builder capabilities. Excludes middleware and integration-focused (IPaaS) vendors (eg. Snaplogic, CloudElements, Dell Boomi). Excludes ESB solutions (eg. IBM WebSphere, Mule ESB, SoftwareAG WebMethods), most of whom have corresponding API management solutions from the same vendor.
Category Line: Monitoring
Related Ecosystem(s): Application performance management (APM)
Criteria Notes: Includes vendors that offer container-focused monitoring solutions either via a graphical interface or by providing webhooks for a microservice to invoke. Excludes general IT operations monitoring (eg. DataDog, Zabbix) and network monitoring tools (eg. Nagios, Zenoss). Excludes logging-focused solutions (eg. Splunk, Sumo). Excludes time series databases (TSDBs, like Graphite and InfluxDB). Excludes APM solutions that focus on performance management (eg. Dynatrace, AppDynamics, and NewRelic).
Note: This name of this district refers to discovery of APIs and microservices via public directories, not service registries and service instance discovery, which are typically functions that load balancers or proxy servers perform.
Category Line: Public Directory and Marketplace
Related Ecosystem(s): Public source code repository hosting (CRH)
Criteria Notes: Includes public API directories (eg. ProgrammableWeb, APIs.io), and marketplaces (eg. Mashape, APinf). Excludes public source code repository hosts (eg. GitHub, Microsoft Codeplex, etc.).
* Vendor is on one other category line
** Vendor is on two other category lines
The Microservices Ecosystem Transit Map is far from perfect. It undoubtedly contains errors, omissions, and miss-categorizations. Therefore, we will continue to update the map and detail content periodically, and welcome any feedback or suggestions for improvement. If proposing to add a vendor to the map, please specify the company, product, url, and evidence (screenshot, documentation, etc.) that it meets the selection criteria for the proposed category. You can reach us via DM on Twitter (@nanoscaleio) or by sending an email to “info” at nanoscale.io
…we assembled a map of the ecosystem to help guide practitioners, vendors, investors, media, or anyone who’s simply interested in following the space…